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He said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings.

100–300 AD) were foundational treatises in India, and comprise texts considered authoritative legal guidance.

This partly reflected Germany's status as a rising power in the late 19th century.

As nationalism grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Law Merchant was incorporated into countries' local law under new civil codes.

The Napoleonic and German Codes became the most influential.

The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein.

The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.

In contrast to English common law, which consists of enormous tomes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and easy for judges to apply.

However, today there are signs that civil and common law are converging.

The most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, and has since been fully transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian, German, and French.

The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society.

Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined.