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Since Live Rail was acquired by Facebook in 2014, I felt good about reporting it — until I realized Live Rail was out of scope per Facebook’s bug bounty terms.

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Further, a given page view could have used a combination of Flash components which only added to the complexity of identifying the source.As shown in the above example, Live Rail’s Flash Ad Player was affected by this issue, so I began researching contacts in order to report it.One such mitigation is the use of base64 encoding when passing parameters.This would limit the characters in the resulting Java Script strings such that special characters would be impossible.Shortly after my recent blog post concerning widespread XSS in ad network code, I discovered similar vulnerabilities in Flash video ads (and other Flash products/components), resulting in a substantial industry-wide mitigation of XSS in Flash-to-Java Script communication.

Perhaps most interestingly, these vulnerabilities presented risks similar to my previous findings except that, in most cases, Ad-Block solutions employed by the client would not have prevented exploitation.I reported the issue to Adobe on 2016-03-11 and they released a fix with a security bulletin (CVE-2016-1036) on 2016-04-21.Though plans are being made to phase out Flash entirely (at least in Chrome), it’s here to stay for the short term (much to the dismay of the security community).I noticed a similar vulnerability in several different Flash components involving the same in order to pass data from Flash to Java Script on the page.Below is an example scenario using such a call in order to send data to a logging server: As you can see, Flash wraps the Java Script function in a try/catch and executes the specified function with its parameters (however unsafely).The mishandling of these parameters seems to be a weakness in Flash’s implementation of in general, rather than an issue with individual projects using it.