Many of those 19 chemicals have been in widespread use for decades, and many are still allowed in a number of other over-the-counter personal care products as well as in consumer and building products. The Green Science Policy Institute [a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization] received funding from New York Community Trust that was used to support the contributions of A. A large amount of triclosan and triclocarban is therefore discharged directly to conventional wastewater treatment plants (Bester 2005; Halden and Paull 2005). Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned nineteen antimicrobial ingredients, including triclosan and triclocarban, in over-the-counter consumer antiseptic wash products based on insufficient evidence demonstrating their safety for long-term daily use and that they reduce the spread of illness and infection. received a grant from the National Science Foundation [CBET 0,967,163 (Using triclosan and polyhalogenated dibenzo--dioxins to elucidate the importance of natural and anthropogenic sources of OH-PBDEs in fresh and estuarine waters)] that ended in 2014. 2013) and because the antibacterial ingredient is highly diluted during the washing process. Triclosan and triclocarban used in consumer products end up in the environment (Heidler and Halden 2009) and have been detected in a wide variety of matrices worldwide (Halden and Paull 2005; Singer et al. Triclosan and triclocarban are commonly used in products intended for washing [e.g., an estimated 96% of triclosan is used in products that are intentionally disposed of down the drain, such as soaps and detergents (Reiss et al. These substances are also used in products that may be frequently washed (e.g., textiles, food contact materials, plastic surfaces). sewage sludge found triclosan and triclocarban at high levels, on average in the tens of milligrams per kilogram dry weight [Halden 2014; U.
Sci Total Environ 3–93, PMID: 17007908, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Environmental exposure of aquatic and terrestrial biota to triclosan and triclocarban. Environ Health Perspect 10–396, PMID: 21062687, 10.1289/ehp.1002883. Chemosphere 11–1918, PMID: 17275881, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Environ Int 4–160, PMID: 26292060, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Dhillon GS, Kaur S, Pulicharla R, Brar SK, Cledón M, Verma M, et al. Triclosan: Current status, occurrence, environmental risks and bioaccumulation potential. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 469–481, 10.1021/bk-2010-1048.ch023. Environ Sci Technol 23–8930, PMID: 23865377, 10.1021/es401919k. Reprod Sci 9–127, PMID: 20889956, 10.1177/1933719110382581. Sci Total Environ 45–238, PMID: 24291564, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Uptake and accumulation of antimicrobials, triclocarban and triclosan, by food crops in a hydroponic system. Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the female Wistar rat. Toms LM, Allmyr M, Mueller JF, Adolfsson-Erici M, Mc Lachlan M, Murby J, et al. Triclosan in individual human milk samples from Australia. Allmyr M, Adolfsson-Erici M, Mc Lachlan MS, Sandborgh-Englund G. Triclosan in plasma and milk from Swedish nursing mothers and their exposure via personal care products. Algal bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyl-triclosan in a North Texas wastewater treatment plant receiving stream. Environ Toxicol Chem 88–1793, PMID: 18380516, 10.1897/07-374.1. Reprod Toxicol 7–613, PMID: 23059059, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Den Hond E, Tournaye H, De Sutter P, Ombelet W, Baeyens W, Covaci A, et al. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and fertility: A case-control study in male subfertility patients. Triclosan exposure increases triclosan resistance and influences taxonomic composition of benthic bacterial communities. Effects of triclocarban on intact immature male rat: Augmentation of androgen action. Macherius A, Lapen DR, Reemtsma T, Römbke J, Topp E, Coors A. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application. J Appl Toxicol 22–1229, PMID: 22806922, 10.1002/jat.2771. Clin Transl Allergy 6, PMID: 27051518, 10.1186/s13601-016-0102-2. Triclosan and triclocarban are not well regulated and may be found in 2,000 consumer and building products (Halden 2014). Triclosan has been detected in both raw and finished drinking water (Loraine and Pettigrove 2006), in ocean water (Xie et al. In personal care products like hand soap, there is no evidence that use of triclosan and triclocarban improves consumer or patient health or prevents disease [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2003; FDA 2016). Triclosan and triclocarban have been detected in the environment throughout the world. A nationwide survey detected triclosan in ∼60% of U. 2008) and are a source of toxic and carcinogenic compounds including dioxins, chloroform, and chlorinated anilines (Buth et al. Sediment cores indicate long-term preservation of triclosan and triclocarban dating to approximately 1964 (when triclosan was patented) (Anger et al. Triclosan has been detected in wild bottlenose dolphins at levels similar to those in humans (Fair et al. These levels are potentially high enough to cause harm (Meador et al. Triclosan was recently detected in the eggs of skimmers, seabirds that serve as sensitive indicators of coastal health and of contaminant threats to fish-eating birds and animals (Millow et al. Methyl triclosan, an even more lipophilic and stable bacterial transformation product of triclosan, has been detected in fish at levels considerably higher than in the surrounding water (Balmer et al. SCCS (European Commission Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety).
Triclosan and triclocarban persist in the environment (Miller et al. Both compounds are predicted to have half-lives on the order of 60d in water, 120d in soil, and 540d in sediment (Halden and Paull 2005). 2009), and triclosan partitions into human blood and breast milk (Allmyr et al. Triclosan and triclocarban are highly hydrophobic and bioaccumulate in organisms living in aquatic systems exposed to effluent from wastewater treatment plants. The bioaccumulation and slow conversion of methyl triclosan in lower-level consumers such as catfish could transfer environmental triclosan to higher-level consumers in the food chain, including humans (James et al. Triclocarban bioaccumulates in freshwater worms (Higgins et al. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 61–1873, PMID: 16952905, 10.1080/15287390600631706. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 19–183, PMID: 24468262, 10.1016/20. J Allergy Clin Immunol 13–460, PMID: 22704536, 10.1016/20. In 2007, an estimated 85% of the total volume of triclosan in the EU was used in personal care and cosmetic products (SCCS 2010). According to the FDA, which is responsible for regulation of foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, and similar products, there is no evidence that antibacterial soaps are more effective than nonantibacterial soap and water (FDA 2016). Through land application of biosolids, antimicrobials can also end up in livestock feed and in crops destined for human consumption (Aryal and Reinhold 2011; Prosser et al. Persisting fractions of triclosan and triclocarban that do not partition into the sludge are discharged to surface waters via effluent, where they can reach levels of thousands of nanograms per liter (Bester 2005; Buth et al. In 1998, the worldwide annual production of triclosan was approximately 1,500 tons, with a majority produced in Europe (350 tons) and the United States (450 tons) (Dhillon et al. In 2006, an estimated 450 tons of triclosan was used within the European Union (EU) [Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2010]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee concluded, “No evidence is available to suggest that use of [antimicrobial-impregnated articles and consumer items bearing antimicrobial labeling] will make consumers and patients healthier or prevent disease” (CDC 2003). Green Science Policy Institute has no actual or potential competing financial interests relating to this publication. 2,000 products including soaps, toothpastes, detergents, clothing, toys, carpets, plastics, and paints (Halden 2014; Smith 2013). In surface waters, even when discharged at nanograms per liter concentrations, triclosan and triclocarban can concentrate and accumulate in sediments (Anger et al. is employed by Environmental Working Group and has no actual or potential competing financial interests to declare. All other authors have no actual or potential competing financial interests to declare. Triclocarban is expected to be similarly prevalent (Halden and Paull 2005). Luthy, Ph D, Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Douglas Mackay, Ph D, Adjunct Professor, Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Kris Maillacheruvu, Ph D, Professor, Civil Engineering and Construction, Bradley University, Peoria, IL, USA Ian Makey, MD, Physician/Assistant Professor, Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Colleen Makey, Ph D, Research Fellow, Environmental Health, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA Bhagyashree Manivannan, Ph D, Affiliated Faculty Member, Center for Environmental Security, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Sherri Mason, Ph D, Professor of Chemistry and Department of Geology and Environmental Sciences Chair, The State University of New York, Fredonia, NY, USA Andrew Maynard, Ph D, Professor, School for the Future of Innovation in Society, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Eugene Mc Call, Ph D, JD, President, Mc Call Environmental, PA, Greenville, SC, USA Perry Mc Carty, Sc D, Professor Emeritus, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Jason P. https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/efc985e4-8802-4ebb-8245-29708747a358 [accessed 17 June 2016]. 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Application of the navigation guide systematic review methodology to the evidence for developmental and reproductive toxicity of triclosan. Kinney C, Furlong E, Kolpin D, Burkhardt M, Zaugg S. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure. Alteration of testicular steroidogenesis and histopathology of reproductive system in male rats treated with triclosan. Environ Sci Technol 57–6161, PMID: 20704212, 10.1021/es1011115. Environ Int –22, PMID: 23973619, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Microb Drug Resist –90, PMID: 16922622, 10.1089/mdr.20. J Chromatogr B 881-8-33, PMID: 22192874, 10.1016/j.jchromb.20.