marble-cake federalism - A term used to describe federalism for most of the twentieth century (and into the twenty-first), where the federal government and the states work closely together and are intertwined; also known as cooperative federalism.necessary and proper clause - A clause at the end of Article I, Section 8, of the U. Constitution that grants Congress the power to do whatever is necessary and proper to carry out its duties; also known as the elastic clause.
solicitor general - A high-ranking Justice Department official who submits requests for writs of certiorari to the Supreme Court on behalf of the federal government; he or she also usually argues cases for the government in front the Court.stewardship theory - A view of presidential power, put forward by Theodore Roosevelt, arguing that the president is uniquely suited to act for the well-being of the whole nation because he or she is elected by the whole nation.supply-side economics - An attempt to improve the economy by providing big tax cuts to businesses and wealthy individuals (the supply side).These cuts encourage investment, which then creates jobs, so the effect will be felt throughout the economy; also known as trickle-down economics.It has also posed new challenges for existing public institutions while at the same time weakening their autonomy and support; and, paradoxically, provided the means for those it excludes culturally or economically to organize against its subordinating and homogenizing force.
Many analysts have pointed to the turbulent nature of this planetary process and to the increasing frequency and variety of reactions to it.Great Compromise - The compromise plan on representation in the constitutional convention; it created a bicameral legislature with representation determined by population in one house and equality in the other; also known as the Connecticut Compromise.guerrilla war - A war in which one or both combatants use small, lightly armed militia units rather than professional, organized armies; guerrilla fighters usually seek to topple their government, often enjoying the support of the people.Electoral College - The body that elects the president of the United States; composed of electors from each state equal to that state’s representation in Congress; a candidate must get a majority of electoral votes to win.Federal Election Campaign Act - A law, passed in 1971, that limited expenditures on media advertising and required disclosure of donations above 0; made more stringent following the Watergate scandal. The pace of global change is extremely rapid, and even those trained to track and analyze it have difficulty keeping up with new developments.