If one asked what was taught in these monastic schools one was told, psalm-singing and a little elementary Latin grammar: a fine preparation truly for the Polycraticus, or the statutes of Cardinal College. Furnivall, the author of the best historical account of education and schools of England, in the introduction to his Babees Book, published by the Early English Text Society in 1868, informed me in 1892, in answer to a request for help in research into the history of grammar schools, that there were no grammar schools in England before Edward VI. Next followed panegyrics or censures; and contrasts, e.g. Plutarch's 'Lives' is one of the results of such exercises. Declamations were still modelled on Demosthenes and Cicero, though, from the loss of constitutional liberty, such subjects as the praise of tyrannicides and the laus et interpretatio legum had become empty verbiage. Augustine of Hippo, and his contemporary the Christian poet Ausonius, may suffice by way of sample.
Soon convinced to the contrary, he was always ready to impart instances of earlier schools which he came across in his wide reading in ancient manuscripts and books. Then commonplaces (communes loci), declamations against gaming or adultery, generalities to be used in particular cases of attack against e.g. As Seneca said, 'We learn for the schools, not for [page 19] life'. Augustine was born at Tagaste in Numidia, on the north coast of Africa, on 13 November, 354, of a Christian mother and a still heathen father. made a catechumen, a ceremony practically equivalent to our infant baptism - baptism being delayed till at least the age of thirty - he attended the elementary school, the grammar school, and the school of rhetoric just in the same way, and learnt the same things, as the 'heathen' Juvenal or Quintilian had done. 14) what miseries he endured when obedience to teachers was set before him that he might flourish in the world and distinguish himself in eloquence and gain wealth and honours.
Some idea of the true history of our schools has now penetrated to scholastic circles, but it has certainly not reached most antiquaries or historians, still less the general public, in spite of the detailed stories, beginning before the Conquest in many cases, already published in the Victoria County History of England of more than a dozen counties. Many before us, passing through the same course, had appointed these troublesome ways, multiplying labour and sorrow upon the sons of Adam.' His faith indeed was shaken, because he prayed to God to escape a flogging, yet flogged he was.
There is, however, not a single statement in this book not founded on verifiable authority. For as to the primary instruction, in which reading, writing, and arithmetic are learnt, I thought it no less of a burden and a punishment than the whole of Greek.' Yet now he would rather forget the wanderings of Æneas or the death of Dido which he wept over than the more certain learning of reading and writing.
The relevant extracts from many of the manuscript and other recondite sources have now been printed verbatim, or detailed references given, in previous publications. 'But though a veil hangs over the entrance of the grammar school (gramaticarum scolarum), yet it is rather a covering of error than the honour due to a mystery.' But still 'one and one are two and two and two are four was a hateful sing-song', while 'the wooden horse, the burning Troy, and the shade of Creusa were a charming vision'.
' - a question which our ancestors answered by the very simple method of extending the rule of the rod to the University as well as to the school.
Journal of Education, October, November, December, 1910. 'Besides', he asks, 'after you have driven the boy by flogging, what will you do with him as a young man, when you cannot hold this over him, though his tasks are more difficult?
Enna (Eunius) Airgtheach, son of Eochaidh Mumho Some sources show a different 21st Monarch (21 - wrong? Nuadu (Nuaghat) Declam Mac ECHACH (22) Rothectaid Rigderg (Roitheaehtaigh) Mac MOEN ; aka Rotheachtach (23) Setna (Sedna) Art Mac ARTRAICH ; killed 22nd Monarch (24) Fiachu Finscothach Mac SETNA ; aka Fiacha Fionn Scothach (25) Muinemon (Muinhearnhoin) Mac CAS (? Rory accepted vassal status in 1175 and renounced his crown 1186.) Tuathal (I) TECHTMAR (TEACHTMAR; Mac FIACHACH) (Scotland ? ) ; 106th (& first certainly historical) MONARCH of IRELAND; fought numerous battles to conquer Ireland; established capital district in Meath James CROFTS (1st Duke of MONMOUTH) SCOTT (Rotterdam 1649 - 15/7/1685 Tower Hill) ; (K.
BC)) ; aka Reachta Righdhearg; aka Reacht Righ-dearg (66) Augaine Mor Mac ECHACH ; Ugaine (Ughaine Ugainy) MOR; aka Hugony `the Great'; sailed to and attacked Africa & Sicily (67) Badhbhchadh mac Echach, son of Eochy Buadech Mac DUACH. BC)) ; aka Adamhor Foltchmoin; aka Adhamhra Foltcain (79) Eochaidh Ailtleathair of IRELAND (80) Feargus Fortamail Mac BRESAIL (sources show two different pedigrees for 81st Monarch) (81) Aengus Tuirbheach Teamhrach Mac FER (? BC) ; aka Aonghus Tuirmech (81) Aengus Tuirbheach Teamhrach of IRELAND (? aka Jonadhmhar (Inadmore) (88) Breasal Boidhiobhadh, son of Rudraige Mor Mac SITTRID (89) Lugaid Luaigne Mac FINTAIT (? BC) ; aka Lughaidh Luaghne (90) Congal Claroineach, son of Rudraige Mor Mac SITTRID (91) Dui Dalta Dedaid Mac CAIRPRE (? BC) ; aka Duach Donn Dalte Deagha (92) Fachtna Fathach Mac Rossa, son of Ros Ruadh Mac RUDRAIGI (93) Eochaidh Feidlech (FEIDHLIOCH) Mac FINN (? BC) ; `Constant Sighing'; slew Tachna Tathlioch (94) Eochaid Airem Mac FINN (? BC) ; aka Eochaidh Airemh `Gravedigger' (95) Eterscel (Etercel) Mac EOGAN (-) Clann Eimhir Finn (96) Nuada Necht Mac SETNAI SITHBAICC (? BC) ; `the White' (97) Conaire (I) Mor Mac ETERSCEOIL Interregnum. (101) Cairbre Cinncait `Cean-Cait' (`Cat's head') (102) Feredac `the True' Mac CRIMTHAINAN NIA NAIRE (? ) ; (Fearadach Fionn Feachtnach) (103) Fiatach Finn Mac DAIRE (104) Fiache II (Fiachaidh IV) Fionnolaidh Mac FEREDAIG (? Hughes shows a co-Ruler with Congalach (-) [944-950] Ruaidri I (173) [956-980] Domnall O'NAILL of IRELAND (? : grandfather of Ann Whitesides); (that our Deborah Montgomery was sister of the (slightly) famous Thomas of Philadelphia is suggested by w.... ) (108) Felim Rachtmar `the Lawgiver' Mac TUATHAL (? ) ; aka Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar; aka Feidhlimdidh Reachtnar (109) Cathair Mar Mac FEIDEILMID (? ) ; King of LEINSTER; (mythical) The 110th Monarchy was shared. - 284) ; aka Cairbrelifefeachaire (118) Fotadh Airgtheach, son of Lugaid (Lughoidh) Mac Con Mac LUGAID (119) Fothadh Cairptheach, son of Lugaid (Lughoidh) Mac Con Mac LUGAID (120) Fiachaidh (V) Sraibhthine (Scrabhtaine) of IRELAND (? ) ; aka Fiachu Sraiptine (Fiacha Srabhteine) Mac CAIRPRE LIPHECHAIR; King of Connaught (121) Colla Uais (Carioll) Mac ECHACH DUIBHLEIN ; `Colla the Noble' (122) Muireadeach (II) Tirech Mac FIACHACH (? (130) [482-507] Lugaidh, son of Laeghaire (Leary) of IRELAND; killed by forces of King Arthur at Battle of Douglas (507) (or killed by lightning at Achadh Farcha for insulting St. - 561) ; aka Domnall (Donald) Mac Muirchertaig O'NAILL (135) [565-566] Fergus (Forggus), son of Muirchertach (Mortough) Mac EARCA For the next few Kings, numbering does not agree with regnal dates (Help! aka Fogartach Ua Cearnaigh, son of Niall, son of Cearnach Sotal, son of 149th Monarch , q.v. - 879) ; aka Aed (VI) Findliath `White-Hair' O'NAILL (169) [879-916] Flann Sionna Mac MAEL SECHNAILL (? ) ; `the Fox' (170) [916-919] Niall Glundub Mac AEDA (O'NAILL) (870? John Thomas MONTGOMERY (another descendant of Alexander Master of MONTGOMERY (q.v., d. )); (he or brother had a son who emigrated from Armagh to Pennsylvania about same time as Deborah) [William MONTGOMERY (d. : grandfather of Ann Whitesides)] John (Major) MONTGOMERY (Eaglesham, Renfrews.? aka Mogha (Mug Leath) Nuadha (Nuadat Nuadak); Mac MOGA NEIT of MUNSTER (111) Conaire (II) Mac MOGA LAMA (? - 266) ; 115th (and wisest) MONARCH of IRELAND; converted to Christianity (116) Eochaidh Gonnat, son of Fiach, son of Imchad (Iomchaidh) Mac BREASAL (117) Cairbre Lifiochair (Lifechar) Mac CORMAIC (? From here, dates of reign are shown, mostly following the website of David Hughes. part of France) (127) [423-428] Dathi Mac Fiachrach, son of Fiachra Foltsnaithech Mac ECHACH (128) [428-463] Laeghaire (Leary) of IRELAND (129) [463-482] Ailill Molt, son of Dathi Mac Fiachrach (127th Monarch), q.v. ruled by High-King Arthur of Britain (131) [ca 521-534] Muirchertach (Mortough) Mac EARCA (132) [534-544] Tuathal Maelgarb Mac CORMAIC (? ) (133) [544-565] Diarmait Derg Mac FEARGUSA CERRBEOIL (? ) (134) [565-566] Domhnall Ilchealgach `the Deceitful' of IRELAND (? (136) [569-572] Eochaid/Eochu, son of Domhnall Ilchealgach `the Deceitful' of IRELAND (137) [569-572] Boadan I (138) [566-569] Ainmere (Ainmercach) Mac SETNA 139th Monarch was Baetan; perhaps two consecutive Baetans ruled but were conflated to one in the Monarchy lists (139) [572-581] Baetan II (139) [581-586] Baetan III, son of Ninnid, son of Dui, son of Conall Gulban Mac NEILL Aedh II and Colman Rimid were co-rulers. - 718 or 722) ; King of Ailech (157) [722-724] Fogartach (Fogerty), prob. ) ; aka Aedh V `the Dignified'; aka Aodh Oirdnide (165) [819-833] Conchobhar, son of Donnchad (I) Midi Mac DOMNAILL (O'NEILL) (166) [833-838] Niall (III) Caille Mac AEDA (791? (167) [846-862] Mael Sechnaill Mor Mac MAEL RUANAID (? ) ; ala Malachy I (168) [862-879] Aedh Finnliath Mac NEILL (King of AILECH) (? ) ; `of the Hundred Battles' (110) Eoghan (Owen) MOR ; aka Eugene `the Great'; aka Eagon More; poss. - 226) (114) Feargusa Dubdetach `the Long Haired' Mac IMCHATHA (? ) ; aka Fearghus Caisfhiaclach Mac IMCHAD (115) Cormac Ulfhada (Ulfhota; `Longbeard') Mac AIRT (? - 365) ; aka Eochaid (XII) Muighmheadhoin (Mugmemdon) (Tara) (125) Crimthann of IRELAND Although the 106th Monarch existed, Niall Noigiallach united Ireland and many lists designate the 126th Monarch as ``First King of Ireland'' and number the Kings starting with him. Boulogne) ; aka Nial (MOR) NAOIGHIALLACH `of the Nine Hostages'; conquered nine countries (incl. ) ; aka Aedh II (142) [598-604] Colman Rimid, son of 139th Monarch, q.v. - 607) ; aka Aedh III Uaridnach (144) [612-615] Mael Coba Mac AEDA (? aka Maolchabha, King of CINEALL CONNILL (145) [615-628] Suibhne Meann, aka Suibne Menn, son of Fiachna, son of Fearadhach, son of Muirchertach (Mortough) Mac EARCA (146) [628-642] Domnall Mac AEDA of IRELAND (? (156) [710-722] Fergal (O'NEILL) Mac MAEL DUIN (Mac MAOLDUIN) (? Ireland overrun by Vikings who proclaimed their leader Turgeis/Thorgest to be King of Ireland. Ivan (IV) `the Terrible' (1st CZAR) of all the RUSSIAS (1530 - 1584) ; aka Ivan VASILYEVICH; aka John IV `the Awesome'; Grand Prince of MOSCOW; he and his son Feodor I were the last rulers of the RURIKID Dynasty Samuel Moore `Sam' WALTON (Kingfisher, Oklahoma 29/3/1918 - 5/4/1992 Little Rock, Ark.) ; (founder & eponym of Wal Mart; 13th wealthiest American ever; 25th Wealthiest Person ever; 5th most influential businessman ever) Marie Joseph Yves Paul `Gilbert' MOTIER de la FAYETTE (Chavainac 6/9/1757 - 20/5/1837 Paris) ; Marquis de la Fayette; (Captain in French Army, General in American Army, famous American HERO; eponym; s.... ) ; aka Art (III) Aonthir; aka Art-Ean-Fhear Eanfhear Aenfher (113) Lugaid (Lughoidh) Mac Con Mac LUGAID (? (149) [654-665] Diarmit II, son of Aed Slaine Mac DIARMATA (150) [654-665] Blathmac, son of Aed Slaine Mac DIARMATA (sometimes confused with 150) [654-665] Blathmac Mac MAEL COBA of ULSTER (? ) (151) [665-671] Sechnussach, son of 150th Monarch Sources may show two different pedigrees for 152nd Monarch (152) [671-675] Ceannfaeladh, son of 150th Monarch, q.v. ) Finachta Headhat (the Christian King who remitted the impost imposed by 106th Monarch). : grandfather of Ann Whitesides); (that our Deborah Montgomery was sister of the (slightly) famous Thomas of Philadelphia is suggested by w....A list of these in which the authorities, so far as they are not given in the text, can be verified in detail, is appended. He [page 22] concludes with rather obvious good sense that he hated Homer for the same reason as he supposes a Greek boy would have hated Virgil.