Ghana is a democratic country led by a president who is both head of state and head of the government.
The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana in the region of Guinea.
With their advanced weapons and the presence of a central authority they easily invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba (land god priests), established themselves as rulers over them and made Gambaga their capital.
14th century medieval ewer looted from the Ashanti Empire in 1896 by British forces.
More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Swedish, Dano-Norwegians, Dutch and German merchants; the latter German people establishing the German Gold Coast (Brandenburger Gold Coast or Groß Friedrichsburg). Kufuor was succeeded to the presidency of the Republic of Ghana by John Atta Mills of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2008.
Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states and the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times in the Anglo-Ashanti wars against the United Kingdom that lasted for 100 years, but eventually lost with the War of the Golden Stool in the early 1900s. Nkrumah declared Ghana's establishment and autonomy. On 1 July 1960, following the Ghanaian constitutional referendum, 1960 and Ghanaian presidential election, 1960 Nkrumah declared Ghana as a republic as the first President of Ghana. and John Atta Mills was inaugurated as the third president of the fourth republic of Ghana and eleventh president of Ghana on 7 January 2009, Following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2012, John Dramani Mahama became President-elect and was inaugurated as the 4th President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and 7th President of Ghana on 7 January 2013, to serve one term of office of four-year term length as President of Ghana until 7 January 2017, As a result of the Ghanaian presidential election, 2016, Nana Akufo-Addo became President-elect and was inaugurated as the 5th President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and 8th President of Ghana on 7 January 2017, to serve one term of office of four-year term length as President of Ghana, until 7 January 2021.
Ghana was ranked 7th in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance.
The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African government, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast.It became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957.Ghana ranked 112th out of 177 countries on the index.Ghana ranked as the 64th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in the world out of all 174 countries ranked and Ghana ranked as the 5th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index.Parliament House of Ghana seat of the Government of Ghana, the Supreme Court of Ghana and Judiciary of Ghana buildings, Osu Castle is the defacto residence of presidency and The Flagstaff House is the official residence and presidential palace.